Obtaining the basic General education according to the Constitution is required. The education system in Russia includes preschool, General and vocational education. General education is divided into elementary, primary and secondary levels, and includes special (correctional) and additional education of children. Vocational education is also divided into primary, secondary and tertiary levels, and includes postgraduate and continuing professional education.

The country has about 7 million students and 1068 universities. In addition, there are 2.9 thousand institutions of secondary vocational education, with an enrollment of about 2.5 million people.

Since 2008, there has been a massive transfer of higher education to two-level system: bachelor — master. A one-tier system (with the qualification “specialist”) remains for some professions and areas of education, such as medical or having defensive value.